Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gonorynchiformes
(Milkfish) > Kneriidae
Etymology: Kneria: From Kner, that studied fishes in the Imperial Museum of Vienna, with Jean Natterer (1817) (Ref. 45335); wittei: Dedicated to M.G.F. De Witte, whose Kneriidae specimens, collected in Katanga, have allowed to resolve the generic status of Kneria and Xenopomatichthys (Ref. 89080). More on author: Poll.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
Africa: Lake Tanganyika basin and upper Congo River basin in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Ref. 2970). Also reported from the Lake Tanganyika basin in Tanzania (Ref. 4967), but presence in Tanzania unconfirmed in Ref. 26644.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2970)
soft rays: 9 - 10;
Vertebrae: 41 - 44. Diagnosis: body depth 4.6-7 times in SL; head length 4.3-6 times in SL (Ref. 2970, 36901, 45485, 89080). Head 1.5-2 times longer than head depth (Ref. 2970). Snout length 2.5-3.8 times in HL, 1.1-1.7 times in postorbital length; eye lateral, its diameter 3.4-5.2 times in HL; interorbital distance 2.3-3.6 times in HL (Ref. 2970, 36901, 45485, 89080). Dorsal fin origin 0.8-1.1 times closer to tip of snout than to caudal fin (Ref. 2970), above anterior pelvic fin rays (Ref. 2970, 36901, 45485, 89080) or slightly more posterior (Ref. 2970). Anal fin 0.9-1.7 times further from pelvics than from caudal fin; pectoral fin length 0.8-1.3 times in HL; pelvic fin length 0.9-1.4 times in HL; caudal peduncle 1.4-2.2 times longer than deep (Ref. 2970). Mature males with opercular and postopercular organ (Ref. 2970, 36901). Mouth inferior, straight, its maximum width (including lips) 2.8-4 times in HL (Ref. 2970). Body brownish dorsally, yellowish ventrally (Ref. 2970, 36901, 45485, 89080). A pronounced brownish lateral band on flanks, either continuous (Ref. 2970, 36901, 45485, 89080) or made up of 8-10 sometimes very contrasting spots (Ref. 2970). Pale zone just above lateral band; medio-dorsal line often with small dotts (Ref. 2970). Dorsal fin sometimes with slightly darker, transversal band and dark spot at origin; caudal fin base darker, its rays slightly greyish (Ref. 36901, 45485, 89080). Pelvic fins with black spot at their base (Ref. 2970, 36901, 45485, 89080). Pectoral, pelvic and anal fins pale (Ref. 45485, 89080).
Inhabits upland streams and pools; hardy and can survive some time out of water (Ref. 4967). Rare, but abundant in its habitats (Ref. 36901).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Poll, M., 1984. Kneriidae. p. 129-133. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3565)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .