Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Characiformes
(Characins) > Erythrinidae
Etymology: Hoplias: Greek, hoplon = weapon (Ref. 45335); curupira: Named for Curupira, a mythical creature of the Brazilian folklore that protects the forest. A Curupira is a small Amerindian child characterized by having its feet turned backwards, making it difficult to follow its tracks; noun in apposition..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
South America: Amazon River basin including rios Capim, Tocantins, Xingu, Tapajós, Trombetas, and Negro; upper Orinoco River basin near the rio Casiquiare; and coastal rivers of Guyana and Suriname.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 29.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 81195)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 8 - 10. This species is distinguished from other members of the Hoplias lacerdae group by having the following characters: laterosensory canal along the ventral surface of dentary always with 4 pores that become gradually subdivided into four patches of multiple pores in specimens larger than 6 cm SL; head and body with a dark brown ground coloration; scales on the lateral line 34-39; snout width 13.1-27.2% of HL; and interorbital width 16.0-35.5% of HL. Differs from Hoplias brasiliensis and Hoplias intermedius by its anterior profile of head rounded in lateral view vs. angular (Ref. 81195).
Inhabits large rivers and igarapés. Occurs usually in pairs. Exhibits diurnal as well as nocturnal habits and preys on various insects, larvae, small fishes, shrimps, worms and fruits (Ref. 81195).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oyakawa, O.T. and G.M.T. Mattox, 2009. Revision of the Neotropical trahiras of the Hoplias lacerdae species-group (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Erythrinidae) with descriptions of two new species. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 7(2):117-140. (Ref. 81195)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00294 - 0.01416), b=3.14 (2.95 - 3.33), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .