Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae
(Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Hippoglossoides: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek, glossa = tongue + Suffix oides = similar to (Ref. 45335). More on author: Jordan, Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 1050 m (Ref. 6793). Temperate; 51°N - 29°N, 97°E - 90°W (Ref. 54555)
North Pacific: Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Bering Sea along the western coast of America to Pt. Reyes, central California, USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 34.3, range 28 - ? cm
Max length : 52.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56370); max. published weight: 1.6 kg (Ref. 56370); max. reported age: 27 years (Ref. 55701)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found on soft bottom (Ref. 2850). Adults usually below 180 m (Ref. 2850). Feed on clams, worms and crustaceans (Ref. 6885). Taken by shrimp and otter trawls (Ref. 6885).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.7 - 11.3, mean 7.6 (based on 24 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00448 - 0.01069), b=3.10 (2.97 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=1-3; Fec=72,000; tmax=27).
Prior r = 0.41, 2 SD range = 0.18 - 0.92, log(r) = -0.89, SD log(r) = 0.4, Based on: 2 K, 4 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .