Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Heteropneustidae
Etymology: Heteropneustes: Greek, heteros = other + Greek, pneo = to breath (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060); 8°N - 7°N
Asia: known to be endemic to Sri Lanka (Ref. 6028), but recorded from India (Ref. 4833, 43640).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6028)
Adults occur mainly in swamps and similar still, often turbid waters (e.g. irrigation ditches). Form loose schools of about ten individuals of approximately the same size. Enter brackish water. Can survive temperatures up to 39.8°C (Ref. 7256). An omnivore with nocturnal feeding habits. Oviparous, distinct pairing possibly like other members of the same family (Ref. 205). Very easily maintained in captivity. Sympatric with H. fossilis which is more abundant in the type locality. Best method of catch is dewatering of small water holes during drought period.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs of about 2 mm diameter are laid in lumps in a gravel nest. The parents guard the eggs and the youngs.
Pethiyagoda, R., 1991. Freshwater fishes of Sri Lanka. The Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, Colombo. 362 p. (Ref. 6028)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00175 - 0.00992), b=3.10 (2.89 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .