Family placement uncertain; see also the genus account: incertae sedis in Percoidei, Johnson, 1984.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 10 - 55 m (Ref. 104864). Tropical; 2°N - 54°S, 92°W - 70°W
Southeast Pacific: Peru to Chile and the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 28023); max. published weight: 1.7 kg (Ref. 53696)
spines: 3. Deep, compressed body, brown, somewhat lighter on the lower half; a dark streak along the lateral line. Large mouth, compressed head. Serrated preopercular margin. Lateral line complete. Small scales. Caudal fin emarginate (Ref. 28023).
Found near drop-offs and among rock out-croppings over sand and rock, in depths greater than 10 meters. Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 28023).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Grove, J.S. and R.J. Lavenberg, 1997. The fishes of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 863 p. (Ref. 28023)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.5 - 23.1, mean 20.1 °C (based on 24 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00472 - 0.03060), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 90 [50, 162] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.964 [0.551, 1.709] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.0, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.329 [0.175, 0.563] g/100g ; Selenium = 49.3 [23.8, 87.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 53.2 [17.4, 182.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.954 [0.625, 1.475] mg/100g (wet weight);