Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 100 m (Ref. 5217), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 35°N - 33°S, 98°W - 33°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (USA), western Bahamas, and Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. Also Caribbean, including Antilles (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3798)
soft rays: 8. Scale rows below lateral line oblique; head entirely scaled except for front of snout near upper lip and front of chin; snout very short; the maxilla not reaching a vertical through center of eye; silvery gray with five dusky yellow stripes, the two lowermost the broadest (Ref. 13442).
Occurs along exposed outer or deeper reefs. Found on semi-hard substrates (Ref. 5217). Feeds mainly on plankton (Ref. 5217); small crustaceans (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.4 - 27.8, mean 25.5 °C (based on 392 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 41.3 [20.2, 84.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.05 [0.54, 1.89] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [17.3, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.153 [0.073, 0.310] g/100g ; Selenium = 17.1 [7.7, 35.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 70.8 [22.1, 211.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.947 [0.548, 1.615] mg/100g (wet weight);