Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Shaw.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 9626), usually 0 - 20 m (Ref. 9626). Subtropical; 33°N - 19°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Florida, USA to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.5, range 14 - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3798); max. published weight: 750.00 g (Ref. 5217); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 72479)
soft rays: 9. Head and body yellow with narrow blue stripes continuing along length of body; stripe under eye with distinctive arch. Spiny dorsal fin yellow; soft dorsal and caudal fins blackish; anal fin dusky yellow (Ref. 26938). Scale rows below lateral line slightly oblique, yellow with blue stripes (Ref. 13442).
Found in small groups over coral and rocky reefs and drop-offs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles are abundant in Thalassia beds (Ref. 5217). Feeds on crustaceans, bivalves, and occasionally on small fishes. Marketed fresh.
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Courtenay, W.R. and H.F. Sahlman, 1978. Pomadasyidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31), Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3798)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.5 - 28, mean 27.3 °C (based on 280 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.01184 - 0.01849), b=2.99 (2.95 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.22-0.30; tm=2; Fec=47,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 30.9 [16.8, 62.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.878 [0.483, 1.459] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.2 [18.2, 22.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.198 [0.106, 0.357] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.3 [9.9, 35.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 36.5 [12.9, 103.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.858 [0.512, 1.366] mg/100g (wet weight);