Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 6 - 180 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: Indonesia to Hawaiian Islands; north to Japan and Taiwan (Ref 90102).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 89.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 121652); 106.0 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 613.90 g (Ref. 121652); max. published weight: 613.90 g
Found in coastal reef sand slopes. Secretive in reefs during the day. Moves out over sand at night to hunt (Ref. 48635). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Apparently has venomous bite (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 17.8 - 28.2, mean 26.8 °C (based on 434 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00040 (0.00026 - 0.00060), b=3.21 (3.09 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100).