Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
Etymology: Gymnocranius: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kranion = skull (Ref. 45335); superciliosus: Named for the conspicuous dark patch above eye, which evokes an eyebrow.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range 5 - 20 m (Ref. 107926), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Southwest Pacific: New Caledonia, Chesterfield Is., and Fiji
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 107926)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species is distinguished by the following: a slender species with ratio of standard length to body depth between 2.65-3.06; forehead bumpy and lower edge of eye well above axis of body; moderately forked caudal fin with lobes slightly rounded; scales rows above lateral line 6; pored
scales on lateral line 48-49; colour of flanks silvery; scales above lateral line with a dark-grey basal patch forming longitudinal rows; scales with similar dark-grey basal patch on a more or less
extended portion of flank below lateral line; up to 24 or more pale-blue speckles against bronze background on snout and cheeks, distinctive on fresh and larger individuals but faint on smaller individuals; a pale-blue band joining the nostrils on forehead and reaching the eyes, bright in freshly captured larger individuals; the area immediately above eye (supraorbital shelf) forming a distinctive blackish eyebrow; more or less conspicuous vertical dark bar crossing the eye; upper lip is reddish to red while lower lip is white; the dorsal, pectoral, anal and caudal fins reddish to red (Ref. 107926).
Occurs on coral-sand bottom and collected using handlines; in lagoons and large pools. Stomach contents include broken bivalve shells and scraps of urchin shell (Ref. 107926).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Borsa, P., P. Béarez, S. Paijo and W.-J. Chen, 2013. Gymnocranius superciliosus and Gymnocranius satoi, two new large-eye breams (Sparoidea: Lethrinidae) from the Coral Sea and adjacent regions. Comptes Rendus Biologies 336: 233-240. (Ref. 107926)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.00772 - 0.04098), b=2.97 (2.78 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 115 [59, 200] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.945 [0.558, 1.657] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [17.4, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.27 [0.14, 0.47] g/100g ; Selenium = 49.5 [25.3, 95.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 22.4 [6.3, 67.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.19 [0.76, 1.77] mg/100g (wet weight);