Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Gymnocephalus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 15. Temperate; 4°C - 18°C (Ref. 2059); 49°N - 43°N, 8°E - 30°E
Europe: Danube drainage. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 12 - 16 cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); max. published weight: 250.00 g (Ref. 556); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 59043)
(total): 17 - 19. Distinguished from its congeners by having unique characters of 3 discontinuous dark stripes along flank and 55-62 + 4-5 scales along lateral line. Differs further from other species of the genus by having 17-19 dorsal spines (Ref. 59043).
Adults occur in groups in open sand and mud bottom of large rivers with moderate current. Nocturnal, feeding on small invertebrates, especially molluscs, usually crepuscular but may also feed at daytime. Larvae are benthic (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are attached to stones by females (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; gamefish: yes; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00493 - 0.02437), b=3.04 (2.85 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.43 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=2-3; tmax=15).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .