Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 7 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; - 18°N
Western Central Atlantic: southern Florida in USA (Ref. 7251) to northern South America.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabits rock faces and tide pools (often under red algae), pilings and surfaces of large sponges.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.5 - 27.9, mean 26.7 °C (based on 279 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00332 - 0.01511), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 232 [106, 520] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.968 [0.535, 1.867] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.124 [0.056, 0.243] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.5 [11.1, 55.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 121 [33, 411] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.35 [1.36, 3.93] mg/100g (wet weight);