Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Cynoscion: Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, skion, skiaina = barbel, red mullet (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 96339), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 33°N - 14°N, 118°W - 92°W
Eastern Pacific: Mexico. Introduced into the highly saline waters of Salton Sea in southern California, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 129 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 24.6 kg (Ref. 40637)
Inhabits coastal waters (Ref. 9118).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.6 - 27.9, mean 23 °C (based on 32 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00428 - 0.01346), b=3.05 (2.90 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 61.5 [30.8, 116.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.754 [0.439, 1.319] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.9 [15.1, 18.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.407 [0.179, 0.904] g/100g ; Selenium = 73.8 [32.0, 163.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 38.7 [11.4, 134.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.998 [0.641, 1.657] mg/100g (wet weight);