Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Cynoscion: Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, skion, skiaina = barbel, red mullet (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 2 - 18 m (Ref. 1183), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 38°N - 10°N, 98°W - 60°W
Western Atlantic: Maryland to northeastern Florida in the USA and throughout Gulf of Mexico. Reported from Campeche Bank in Mexico (Ref. 5733). Often misidentified as Cynoscion regalis (Ref. 3702).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 16.0, range 14 - 17 cm
Max length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. reported age: 1.20 years (Ref. 31629)
soft rays: 8 - 11;
Vertebrae: 27. Colour greyish above and changing abruptly to silvery below. Back and upper sides sometimes with very faint irregular rows of spots. Dorsal fin dusky, other fins pale to yellowish. Mouth large, oblique, lower jaw projecting. Upper jaw with a pair of large canine-like teeth at tip. Lower jaw with a row of sharp enlarged inner-row teeth, widely spaced. Chin without barbels or pores. Snout with 2 marginal pores. Gas bladder with a pair of straight, horn-like anterior appendages. Soft portion of dorsal fin covered with small scales on basal half of in (Ref 51721).
Occurs usually over sandy bottoms in inshore waters along beaches and in river mouths. Feeds mainly on crustaceans and fishes.
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.4 - 28, mean 26.8 °C (based on 492 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00803 - 0.01884), b=3.00 (2.88 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 5.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.22).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 122 [59, 251] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.32 [0.78, 2.72] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.8 [16.2, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.763 [0.359, 1.577] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.9 [12.4, 66.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 24.1 [7.1, 84.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.06 [0.66, 1.84] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.