Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 150 - 1250 m (Ref. 55609), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C - ; 38°S - 55°S
Southwest Atlantic: Argentina to southern Brazil. Southeast Pacific: Chile. Two forms are suggested, banded and plain colored.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27363)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 5 - 6;
soft rays: 11 - 12;
Vertebrae: 29. Diagnosis: Interorbital region concave with the side borders strong and higher. Vomerine teeth well-developed. Bony plates on head and body widely scattered, each with several prickles. Head spines are prominent, suborbital spines distinct and in three paired sets, Lateral line pores on body not emerging in distinct tubes (Ref. 55609). Color pattern on body varies, with or without three irregular brownish bands (Ref. 27363).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nakamura, I., T. Inada, M. Takeda and H. Hatanaka, 1986. Important fishes trawled off Patagonia. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo. 369 p. (Ref. 27363)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3 - 5.9, mean 4.3 °C (based on 72 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 53.5 [25.0, 128.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.333 [0.185, 0.672] mg/100g ; Protein = 15 [13, 18] % ; Omega3 = 0.396 [0.157, 1.200] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.6 [7.8, 51.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 24 [6, 97] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.541 [0.349, 0.866] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.