Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 85 m (Ref. 43278). Tropical; 34°N - 26°S, 78°E - 155°E
Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Island and India east to Philippines, north to Japan and south to Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 87 - ? cm
Max length : 132 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 106604)
soft rays: 0. Genus: Nostrils subterminal on snout; pre-oral snout long, mouth closer to eyes than snout tip; eyes and supraorbital ridges hardly elevated; no black hood on head or large spot or spots on sides of body above pectoral fins (Ref. 43278). Caudal fin with a pronounced subterminal notch but without a ventral lobe (Ref. 13575).
Species: Young with dark transverse bands and usually a scattering of a few dark spots, bars not prominently edged with black (Ref. 13575, 43278). Adults light-brown, usually without a color pattern (Ref. 13575). Dorsal fins larger than pelvic fins, with projecting free rear tips (Ref. 13575). Body without lateral dermal ridge (Ref. 4832,43278, 13575).
A common inshore bottom shark found on coral reefs, often in tide pools (Ref. 247). Probably feeds on bottom invertebrates and small fish (Ref. 6871). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Can survive up to 12 hours out of water (Ref. 247). Gills sometimes infested by larval isopods (Praniza-larva of isopod Gnathia) (Ref. 247). Utilized as food (Ref. 247); for its meat and fins. Caught frequently by demersal gillnet, longline and trawl fisheries operating in insular and continental shelf waters (Ref.58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, with rounded egg cases (Ref. 247). Paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1554 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00407 (0.00179 - 0.00926), b=3.09 (2.89 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.64 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 18.9 [3.3, 61.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.373 [0.109, 1.036] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.1, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.0987 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.4 [8.8, 98.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 45.5 [16.6, 113.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.761 [0.362, 1.914] mg/100g (wet weight);