Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - ? ; dH range: 7 - ?; non-migratory. Tropical; 26°C - 27°C (Ref. 2059)
South America: Amazon River basin, along the Amazon River in Brazil from the Madeira and Uatumã River drainages to Gurupá, also in the Araguari River in Amapá, Brazil; in the Branco River drainage in Brazil and Guyana.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96599)
Among plants (Ref. 36377). Eggs are deposited on open substrate and defended by both parents (Ref. 40602). Consumed locally (Ref. 40602).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are deposited on open substrate and defended by both parents. Larvae are transferred to various hiding places by the female (Ref. 40602).
Kullander, S.O., 2003. Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil. (Ref. 36377)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03311 (0.01745 - 0.06285), b=2.99 (2.83 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec<1000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .