Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 40 - 700 m (Ref. 56504). Subtropical; 62°N - 10°N, 18°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: western Norway, Skagerrak, Shetlands and western Scotland to Senegal. Also in the Mediterranean (mainly western part).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 8.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5377); common length : 13.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4952)
(total): 9 - 10;
soft rays: 22 - 24. Eye large; snout as long as eye or longer. Mouth very protractile, forming a short tube when protruded. Third dorsal and anal spines only a little longer and stronger than the others. Body depth more than one and a half times in standard length. Vertebrae 21-23.
Depth range from 40-600 m (Ref. 35388) and from 288-700 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Gregarious. Form schools. Found over rock or coral, but also trawled over sandy ground. Feed on crustaceans or worms, mollusks (Ref. 4952). Males are smaller than females (Ref. 5377).
Quéro, J.-C., 1986. Caproidae. p. 777-779. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4952)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.9 - 15, mean 10.7 °C (based on 295 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01451 - 0.02501), b=2.81 (2.73 - 2.89), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.145; tmax=26; tm=1.84).
Prior r = 0.44, 95% CL = 0.29 - 0.69, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 64.7 [34.5, 137.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.14 [0.71, 2.05] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [17.5, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.34 [0.20, 0.58] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.6 [10.2, 47.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 25.1 [6.9, 90.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.75 [0.49, 1.19] mg/100g (wet weight);