Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 121773). Tropical; 30°N - 10°N, 34°E - 76°E
Northern Indian Ocean: from the Red Sea to western India, including the Persian Gulf.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 16.7  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 27550)
Demersal on insular and continental shelves, and occasionally found in coastal embayments (Ref.58048). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Caught in large quantities as by-catch of bottom trawl and trammel net fisheries. Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its very small size (Ref.58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205), with histotrophy. Gives birth to litters of 1-2 pups; no reproductive synchronicity. Born at 8-10 cm WD (Ref.58048). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Last, P.R. and L.J.V. Compagno, 1999. Dasyatididae. Stingrays. p. 1479-1505. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9840)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 28.1 - 29.1, mean 28.8 (based on 326 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00214 (0.00123 - 0.00372), b=3.05 (2.88 - 3.22), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (87 of 100) .