Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Subtropical
Southeast Atlantic: Knysna to East London (South Africa).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4919)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 10 - 12. Color dark, belly pale; dark lines from above anal fin to chin; anus, pectoral base and gill opening in rounded black areas, and a black bar each side of angle of mouth along lower lip; fins dusky (Ref. 4919).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith, M.M. and P.C. Heemstra, 1986. Tetraodontidae. p. 894-903. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4919)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.3 - 22, mean 19 °C (based on 22 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03631 (0.01554 - 0.08482), b=2.88 (2.70 - 3.06), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .