Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Apogon: Greek, a = without + Greek pogon = chin, beard (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 55 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Central Atlantic: southern Florida, USA and Bahamas, Caribbean, including Antilles (Ref. 26938) to northern South America.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26938)
Inhabits coral and rocky areas, often near drop-offs. Solitary or in groups in caves or holes (Ref. 9710). Often seen hovering in the spines of long-spined urchin.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 28, mean 27 °C (based on 236 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00473 - 0.02425), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 193 [109, 469] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.09 [0.66, 1.78] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [18.2, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.192 [0.114, 0.327] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.6 [13.3, 50.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 103 [35, 291] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.96 [1.33, 2.84] mg/100g (wet weight);