Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 20 m (Ref. 189). Subtropical; 22°S - 40°S, 60°W - 42°W (Ref. 189)
Southwest Atlantic: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to Mar del Plata, Argentina.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27363); common length : 9.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27363)
soft rays: 20 - 24. Snout long and pointed, almost equal to eye diameter; maxilla fairly long, tip bluntly pointed, reaching just or almost to hind border of pre-operculum; gill cover canals of panamensis-type; pseudobranch long, more than eye diameter, with about 30 filaments. Anus nearer to anal fin origin than to pelvic fin tips (Ref. 189). Body dark blue or greenish above, with a wide silver stripe along sides (Ref. 27363).
Found inshore down to at least 20 m deep (Ref. 189). Presumably feeds on zooplankton (Ref. 189). Eggs recorded off Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil in July and late August to early September, oval in shape and 0.94-1.02 by 0.68-0.83 mm (Ref. 189).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawn in school (Ref. 205).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00244 - 0.00818), b=3.14 (2.98 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 260 [111, 526] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.65 [1.57, 4.60] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [15.9, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.595 [0.337, 1.122] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.4 [10.7, 47.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.5 [3.6, 37.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.31 [0.86, 2.03] mg/100g (wet weight);