Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 70 m (Ref. 6871). Tropical; 41°N - 24°S, 51°E - 154°E
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to the Philippines, north to Korea and southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Possibly in the Red Sea and eastern and southern Africa.
e Indo-West Pacific from the Persian/Arabian Gulf westwards to Indonesia, and north to Taiwan, China and southern Japan.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 40.5, range 39 - 42 cm
Max length : 65.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 47613)
This small species of Aetomylaeus (reaching to about 72.0 cm DW) is distinguished by the following set of characters: dorsal surface is greyish brown with a series of usually 8 (sometimes 7) transverse pale bluish bands (which are sometimes faint), no dark spots or blotches; ventral surface is whitish, pectoral fins is dusky distally; tail is rather long (1.4-1.8 times DW); without stinging spine; short and narrow head; fleshy rostral lobe, relatively broad, short, with a rounded apex; teeth usually in 7 rows in each jaw, with a broad median row flanked by 3 smaller rows on each side; dorsal-fin origin level with pelvic-fin insertions; radials of pectoral-fin 84-88 (excluding concealed propterygial radials anterior of eyes); total vertebral centra (including synarcual) 83-93; males have 16-19 pelvic radials (excluding clasper); females have 20 or 21 pelvic radials (Ref. 103981).
Occurs inshore and offshore, from the intertidal to at least 70 m depth (Ref. 9862); over soft substrates to at least 115 m (Ref. 103981). May enter brackish water. Feeds on worms, crustaceans, snails, and bony fishes (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). With litters of up to 4 young. Size at birth about 17 cm WD (Ref. 6871). Caught frequently, but in lower numbers, by bottom trawl and inshore gillnet fisheries in some areas. Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its small size (Ref.58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Gives birth to ~4 pups; born at ~17 cm WD (Ref.58048).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.8 - 28.3, mean 27.3 °C (based on 618 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00121 - 0.01252), b=3.08 (2.83 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.62 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=4).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (83 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 93.9 [15.1, 285.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.901 [0.261, 2.802] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [17.0, 22.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.292 [0.087, 1.007] g/100g ; Selenium = 51.4 [10.4, 141.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21 [8, 54] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.07 [0.52, 2.47] mg/100g (wet weight);