Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Belonidae
Etymology: Strongylura: Greek, strongylos = round + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Walbaum.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - ? m. Subtropical; 45°N - 9°S, 88°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Maine, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. Absent from the Bahamas and Antilles (Ref. 3129).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 111 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 2.3 kg (Ref. 40637)
Inhabits coastal areas and mangrove-lined lagoons. Enters freshwater. Feeds mainly on small fishes. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205). Only the right gonad is developed (Ref. 26938). Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.3 - 28, mean 26.1 °C (based on 304 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00129 (0.00079 - 0.00210), b=3.05 (2.92 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 28.7 [11.0, 79.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.02 [0.43, 2.23] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.1 [15.0, 19.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.317 [0.105, 0.995] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.9 [8.0, 64.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 57.1 [10.5, 306.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.935 [0.522, 1.709] mg/100g (wet weight);