Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes)
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.2 - 7.5; dH range: ? - 15. Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 1672); 17°N - 4°N
Africa: White Nile (Ref. 3202), Niger, Volta, Chad, Kwa Ibo (Ref. 57223) and Cross basins (Ref. 52861).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31256)
spines: 0. Diagnosis: gill slits not extending ventrally beyond pectoral-fin insertions; eye large, its diameter 23-34.5% of head length and 48-75% of snout length; post-orbital length at least 60% of snout length; maxillary barbels unbranched, longer than head, without tubercles and bordered by a rather broad basal membrane restricted to their anterior thirds; outer mandibular barbels with simple, thin and rather long ramifications; branches of inner mandibular barbels shorter, subdivided and tuberculate; mandibular teeth slender and moderately long, numbering 39-62 (62 in the holotype); denticulations of pectoral-fin spines weak on outer margin and well developed on inner margin; dorsal-fin spine smooth anteriorly, except for a few apical denticles; humeral process triangular and not keeled ventrally; adipose fin well developed and rather close to rayed dorsal fin; branched dorsal-fin rays as well as dorsal- and pectoral-fin spines prolonged into filaments; spots present on body and fins (Ref. 57223).
Coloration: body more or less dark brown. Back, sides, head and fins with few isolated small spots; depending on individuals, spots on fins more or less aligned in series; maxillary barbels (including membranes) black; fin filaments darker than fins themselves (Ref. 57223).
Maximum TL was recorded at 22.2 cm, max. SL at 22.2 cm (Ref. 57223). Occurs over a muddy bottom but may also be found over rocks. Feeds mainly on insect larvae but will also take algae (Ref. 6868). This is also an upside-down species (Ref. 4537). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Gosse, J.-P., 1986. Mochokidae. p. 105-152. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels, MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3202)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00615 - 0.03096), b=2.95 (2.77 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.28 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .