Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Tropical; 12°N - 0°S, 72°W - 48°W
Western Atlantic: Venezuela to mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3265); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3265); max. published weight: 15.0 kg (Ref. 5217)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 1. The head is flattened on top. The snout is short and large and transversally truncated. Mouth terminal, the lower jaw is the same length or slightly longer than the superior jaw. It has three pairs of barbels (1 pair maxillary barbels, 2 pairs of mandibular barbels) (Ref. 35381).
Occurs in coastal waters and river estuaries. Found on shallow muddy bottoms (Ref. 5217). Reproduction seems to occur twice a year, in April and in October. The female lays 20-25 eggs measuring 12-15 mm. Mouth-brooding by the males lasts 10-12 days (Ref. 35381). Marketed fresh and salted (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Taylor, W.R. and N.A. Menezes, 1978. Ariidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). volume 1. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3265)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00265 - 0.01037), b=3.11 (2.94 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .