Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Mycteroperca: Greek, mykter, -eros = nose + Greek, perke = perch (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lowe.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 200 m (Ref. 27000), usually 20 - 30 m. Subtropical; 39°N - 12°N, 27°W - 12°W (Ref. 5222)
Eastern Atlantic: known with certainty only from the Azores, Madeira, Cape Verde, and the Canary Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222); max. published weight: 3.0 kg (Ref. 5222)
soft rays: 10 - 12. Distinguished by the following characteristics: brownish or dark grey body color of adults with irregular pale blotches and spots and prominent maxillary streak (capable of reversing body color pattern when under stress); juveniles mottled greenish brown, with prominent white spots on head and body, median fins with white streaks and hyaline golden pectoral fins; oblong and compressed body, depth 3.0-3.3 times in SL; head length 2.6-2.9 times in SL; convex interorbital area; enlarged serrae of preopercle at the angle, forming rounded lobe below shallow indentation on vertical limb; few small serrae on subopercle and interopercle; subequal sizes of anterior and posterior nostrils in juveniles, adults with 3 times larger posterior nostrils compared to anterior ones; lower jaws extends well in front of upper jaw (Ref. 89707).
Adults occur near the bottom in rocky areas; juveniles are found in tide pools (Ref. 89707). Two specimens collected from the Cape Verde by J. Cadenat were from a depth of '50' m.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.7 - 25.3, mean 19.9 °C (based on 56 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00414 - 0.02009), b=3.05 (2.88 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.8 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 49.7 [27.0, 96.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.938 [0.561, 1.647] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.7, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.397 [0.245, 0.627] g/100g ; Selenium = 37 [18, 71] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 24 [8, 81] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.555 [0.366, 0.875] mg/100g (wet weight);