Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 64 m (Ref. 86942). Temperate
Western Pacific: Japan (from Matsushima Bay and Niigata Prefecture southward) and southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. Recently reported from the Chesterfield Islands (Ref. 11897).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
(total): 10 - 13;
soft rays: 11 - 13. Body ovoid and compressed, covered with velvety prickles. Preoperculum with 4 spines. Dorsal fin notched behind the 3rd spine. Body dark-brown with indefinite darker blotches.
Occurs in shallow waters on sand or mud bottoms. Processed into animal feeds and fertilizers (Ref. 637). Neither anterolateral glandular groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.5 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 554 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.47 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .