Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Acanthuridae
(Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes) > Prionurinae
Etymology: Prionurus: Greek, prion, -onos = saw + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually 2 - 20 m (Ref. 27115). Subtropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 27115)
Northwest Pacific: Matsushima Bay, Japan to Taiwan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
soft rays: 21 - 23. Body roundish in young, becoming ovate with age. Forehead without rostral prominence even in adult. Caudal peduncle relatively deep and compressed without dorsal and ventral precaudal depressions. Four or 5 bony plates are on each side of the caudal peduncle. Posterior 3 or 4 plates with feeble triangular keels.
Often found in groups in shallow, surge rocky areas (Ref. 9710). Anterolateral glandular groove with venom gland (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.7 - 26.6, mean 22.5 °C (based on 96 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 24 [12, 46] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.871 [0.455, 1.570] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.3 [18.1, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.156 [0.085, 0.289] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.4 [7.3, 39.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14 [3, 66] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.932 [0.522, 1.563] mg/100g (wet weight);