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Epinephelus caninus (Valenciennes, 1843)

Dogtooth grouper
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Epinephelus caninus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus caninus (Dogtooth grouper)
Epinephelus caninus
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) > Epinephelidae (Groupers)
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 30 - 400 m (Ref. 5222). Subtropical; 46°N - 18°S, 19°W - 41°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Angola, including the Mediterranean.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 164 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89707); max. published weight: 35.0 kg (Ref. 5222)

Short description Identification keys | Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13 - 14; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: uniformly dark reddish brown or greyish violet to yellowish grey; posterior parts of median fins with distinct white edge; 2-3 dark bands radiating posteriorly from the eye, uppermost extends from the eye to the lower opercular spine, 2nd runs from the lower edge of the eye across the angle of preopercle to the juncture of interopercle and subopercle, 3rd band extends from the dark mustache streak at the upper edge of the maxilla to the lower edge of preopercle; body depth 2.7-3.0 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.5 in SL; convex interorbital area; angular preopercle, 3-5 distinctly enlarged serrae at the angle and usually slender, antrorse or ventrally directed spine on ventral edge near the angle; serrate subopercle and interopercle; distinctly convex upper edge of operculum; posterior nostril is 2 or 3 times size of anterior nostril; scaly maxilla, reaching to or beyond vertical at rear edge of eye; 2 rows of teeth in midlateral part of lower jaw, inner teeth larger; well developed canines at front of jaws; caudal fin truncate, corners slightly rounded; body scales distinctly ctenoid, with numerous auxiliary scales (Ref. 089707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs on sandy mud bottoms (Ref. 3589). Feeds on fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 5506). Maximum weight of 78 kilograms reported by Jose Manuel, Spain (05/05).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturities | Reproduction | Spawnings | Egg(s) | Fecundities | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Data deficient (DD) ; Date assessed: 17 November 2016


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO - Fisheries: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Trophic ecology
Food items
Diet compositions
Food consumptions
Food rations
Population dynamics
Max. ages / sizes
Length-weight rel.
Length-length rel.
Mass conversions
Life cycle
Spawning aggregations
Egg developments
Larval dynamics
FAO areas
BRUVS - Videos
Gill areas
Body compositions
Oxygen consumptions
Swimming type
Swimming speeds
Visual pigment(s)
Fish sounds
Diseases / Parasites
Toxicities (LC50s)
Human related
Aquaculture systems
Aquaculture profiles
Ciguatera cases
Stamps, coins, misc.


Special reports

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: genus, species | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Fisheries: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 12.3 - 17.2, mean 14.9 °C (based on 180 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00571 - 0.02419), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.55 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 28.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (87 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 22.5 [8.2, 54.4] mg/100g; Iron = 0.669 [0.308, 1.587] mg/100g; Protein = 18.2 [16.5, 19.9] %; Omega3 = 0.267 [0.136, 0.540] g/100g; Selenium = 52.6 [20.4, 126.8] μg/100g; VitaminA = 19.2 [4.0, 96.1] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.745 [0.455, 1.220] mg/100g (wet weight);