Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Synaptura: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, aptein = to join + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Chabanaud.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range - 50 m (Ref. 2683), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 16°N - 5°S
Eastern Central Atlantic: Dakar, Senegal to the Gulf of Guinea and Pointe-Noire, Congo (Ref. 5304). Reported from Mauritania (Ref. 55783).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5304)
Found on sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 2683).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Desoutter, M., 1990. Soleidae. p. 1037-1049. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 5304)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00466 - 0.02049), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 175 [80, 402] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.961 [0.501, 1.935] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.4 [15.7, 19.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.277 [0.120, 0.643] g/100g ; Selenium = 51.4 [23.3, 131.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 19.1 [5.1, 70.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.26 [0.78, 2.05] mg/100g (wet weight);