Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - 100 m (Ref. 114953), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 28°S - 38°S, 149°E - 155°E (Ref. 114953)
Southwest Pacific: endemic to eastern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953); max. published weight: 6.7 kg (Ref. 6870)
This large shovelnose ray is distinguished by the following characters: suboval disc, short and broadly rounded snout with nostrils partly covered with a large nasal curtain; sharp thorns present on mid-line of disc and shoulders; behind interorbital space is an ornate pattern of dark-edged bands with distinct triangular or diamond-shaped marking (Ref. 114953).
A benthic species and an active scavenger which will enter fish traps and often becoming ensnared by the disc (Ref. 6871). Found also on sandy bottoms and seagrass areas, often near rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Mainly feeds on crabs and shrimps (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous with golden egg capsules, each with up to 3 embryos (Ref. 12951). Produces up to 2-3 pups. Length size seldom exceeds 110 cm TL; birth size at ca. 25 cm TL (Ref. 114953). The flesh is good to eat, although only a small quantity is sold in seafood outlets (Ref. 6871).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Last, P.R., W.T. White, M.R. de Carvalho, B. Séret, M.F.W. Stehmann and G.J.P. Naylor, 2016. Rays of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Comstock Publishing Associates. i-ix + 1-790. (Ref. 114953)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.3 - 22.5, mean 20.7 °C (based on 18 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00265 - 0.01982), b=2.99 (2.75 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 35.3 [5.9, 124.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.797 [0.206, 2.094] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [16.9, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.249 [0.120, 0.509] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.8 [8.4, 83.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.21 [3.07, 21.63] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.581 [0.289, 1.418] mg/100g (wet weight);