Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243). Temperate
Northwest Pacific: Sea of Okhotsk, Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, Gulf of Bo Hai, and East China Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 22 - 26 cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); common length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); max. published weight: 1.2 kg (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 56527)
Feeds on crabs (Ref. 9137).
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.6 - 22, mean 10.6 (based on 381 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00534 - 0.01296), b=3.03 (2.90 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 11.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.11).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .