Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 2 - 170 m (Ref. 56557). Temperate
Northwest Pacific: southern Hokkaido to the Korean Peninsula, Yellow Sea, Gulf of Po-Hai and East and South China seas.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); max. published weight: 1.0 kg (Ref. 56557)
soft rays: 52 - 65. This species is distinct in having the following characters: brown body with small, dark, irregular spots densely distributed on ocular side; small scales, imbricated, elongate, and not deciduous; supratemporal lateral line usually with no antrorse branch; body depth 48.7-63.3% SL (mean 54.5% SL); dorsal-fin soft rays 72-88 (mode 77, mean 78.4); anal-fin soft rays 52-65 (mode 58, mean 58.3); abdominal vertebrae 12-14 (mode, 13), caudal vertebrae 22-26 (mode 24) (Ref. 84246).
Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms in coastal areas (Ref. 9137, 11230).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.9 - 25.2, mean 20.7 °C (based on 278 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00671 - 0.00940), b=3.09 (3.04 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.18).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .