Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.3 - 8.0; dH range: 15 - 30; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 5°C - 20°C (Ref. 12468); 50°N - 44°N, 7°E - 20°E
Europe: Northern Adriatic basin from Livenza to Po drainages, Lakes Maggiore, Lugano and Como (Italy, Switzerland). Introduced in Arno. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 96829); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 96829)
Distinguished from its congeners in Apennine Peninsula by having the following unique characters: peritoneum black; and breeding males with two horizontal rows of distinct and separate tubercles on side of head above eye, lower one with 8-11 tubercles, upper one with 3-6 tubercles (tubercles reddish brown in ethanol); tubercles on body and head conical, sharply pointed, pointed slightly forward, occupying about 1/3 of exposed area of scale. Can be further separated from other species of the genus in Apennine Peninsula by the combination of the following characters: 43-46 + 3 scales along lateral line; dorsal fin with 10½ branched rays; anal fin with 11½ branched rays; mouth inferior; body laterally compressed, maximum width about 50% of body depth; iris silvery; flanks golden bronze in life, marbled with darker patches; and snout conical (Ref. 59043).
Inhabits deep waters of large, subalpine lakes and large to medium sized rivers. Occurs in small groups. Feeds in invertebrates, algae and detritus. Moves to shallow parts of rivers to spawn (Ref. 59043). Threatened due to overfishing and construction of weirs, which block access to spawning sites (Ref. 59043) and the introduction of two alien species (European roach, Rutilus rutilus and European nase, Chondrostoma nasus) (Ref. 96829). Sexual maturity is attained at age 3+ or 4+ in males and 5+ in females at about 28-33 cm SL. Spawning occurs in April and May (Ref. 96829). Reaches a maximum size of about 45 cm SL (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Each female lays 35,000-60,000 eggs depending on size (Ref. 6111).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00374 - 0.01613), b=3.13 (2.96 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.38 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .