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Rutilus pigus (Lacepède, 1803)

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Rutilus pigus
Male picture by Hantke, H.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Leuciscidae (Minnows) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Rutilus: Latin, rutilus = reddish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Lacepède.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.3 - 8.0; dH range: 15 - 30. Subtropical; 5°C - 20°C (Ref. 12468); 50°N - 44°N, 7°E - 20°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Europe: Northern Adriatic basin from Livenza to Po drainages, Lakes Maggiore, Lugano and Como (Italy, Switzerland). Introduced in Arno.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 96829); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 96829)

Short description Identification keys | Morphology | Morphometrics

Distinguished from its congeners in Apennine Peninsula by having the following unique characters: peritoneum black; and breeding males with two horizontal rows of distinct and separate tubercles on side of head above eye, lower one with 8-11 tubercles, upper one with 3-6 tubercles (tubercles reddish brown in ethanol); tubercles on body and head conical, sharply pointed, pointed slightly forward, occupying about 1/3 of exposed area of scale. Can be further separated from other species of the genus in Apennine Peninsula by the combination of the following characters: 43-46 + 3 scales along lateral line; dorsal fin with 10½ branched rays; anal fin with 11½ branched rays; mouth inferior; body laterally compressed, maximum width about 50% of body depth; iris silvery; flanks golden bronze in life, marbled with darker patches; and snout conical (Ref. 59043).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits deep waters of large, subalpine lakes and large to medium sized rivers. Occurs in small groups. Feeds in invertebrates, algae and detritus. Moves to shallow parts of rivers to spawn (Ref. 59043). Threatened due to overfishing and construction of weirs, which block access to spawning sites (Ref. 59043) and the introduction of two alien species (European roach, Rutilus rutilus and European nase, Chondrostoma nasus) (Ref. 96829). Sexual maturity is attained at age 3+ or 4+ in males and 5+ in females at about 28-33 cm SL. Spawning occurs in April and May (Ref. 96829). Reaches a maximum size of about 45 cm SL (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturities | Reproduction | Spawnings | Egg(s) | Fecundities | Larvae

Each female lays 35,000-60,000 eggs depending on size (Ref. 6111).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

More information

Trophic ecology
Food items
Diet compositions
Food consumptions
Food rations
Population dynamics
Max. ages / sizes
Length-weight rel.
Length-length rel.
Mass conversions
Life cycle
Spawning aggregations
Egg developments
Larval dynamics
Gill areas
Body compositions
Oxygen consumptions
Swimming type
Swimming speeds
Visual pigment(s)
Fish sounds
Diseases / Parasites
Toxicities (LC50s)
Human related
Aquaculture systems
Aquaculture profiles
Ciguatera cases
Stamps, coins, misc.


Special reports

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: genus, species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00358 - 0.01465), b=3.14 (2.98 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.38 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100).