Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Soleidae
Etymology: Liachirus: Greek, leios = smooth + Greek, cheir = hand (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 3 - 20 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Laccadives, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, China, Taiwan and Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637)
Inhabits coastal sand slopes and estuaries (Ref. 48637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.6 - 29.2, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2445 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00466 - 0.02049), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 244 [124, 545] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.94 [0.50, 1.83] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.8, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.16 [0.08, 0.32] g/100g ; Selenium = 46.4 [21.8, 102.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21.5 [6.5, 72.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.21 [0.74, 1.87] mg/100g (wet weight);