Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Cynoglossinae
Etymology: Cynoglossus: Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335). More on author: Hamilton.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 961 m (Ref. 9494), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 25°N - 10°S, 32°E - 127°E
Indo-West Pacific: Malay Archipelago including Thailand, Viet Nam, the Philippines and Indonesia westward to seas and estuaries of India and Pakistan to the Red Sea (Ref. 9895).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 9 - 12.2 cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11298); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9895)
soft rays: 97 - 114. Eyed side reddish brown, sometimes with irregular brown-black patches, with a large black blotch on gill cover. Body very elongate, its depth 17 to 22% SL. Eyes with a small interorbital space. Corner of mouth reaching well beyond vertical through posterior margin of lower eye, much nearer to gill opening than to tip of snout. Caudal-fin rays 10. No lateral lines on blind side. Scales comparatively large, ctenoid on eyed side of body, cycloid (smooth) on blind side. Midlateral-line scales 90 to 101. Only 11 or 12 scale rows between lateral lines on eyed side of body (Ref 9895).
Adults live mainly in shallow muddy and sandy bottoms of the continental shelf, sometimes entering estuaries and tidal rivers (Ref. 1479, 48637). Usually deeply buried in the substrate during the day, but out and hunting at night (Ref. 48637). They feed mainly on benthic invertebrates. Marketed mostly fresh and frozen; also dried-salted (Ref. 9895).
Menon, A.G.K., 1977. A systematic monograph of the tongue soles of the genus Cynoglossus Hamilton-Buchanan (Pisces: Cynoglossidae). Smithson. Contrib. Zool. (238):1-129. (Ref. 5297)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.8 - 18.2, mean 12.3 °C (based on 243 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00592 - 0.03870), b=3.00 (2.77 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 360-35,926).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 165 [81, 331] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.965 [0.562, 1.785] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.3 [14.7, 19.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.318 [0.142, 0.695] g/100g ; Selenium = 59.8 [28.1, 146.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.4 [3.9, 50.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.16 [0.77, 1.75] mg/100g (wet weight);