Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Etelinae
Etymology: Aphareus: Greek, aphareys, -eos = water wings under the belly of female tunna (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 122 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 35°N - 31°S, 35°E - 134°W (Ref. 55)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Australia. Reported from Cocos Island in the eastern Pacific (Ref. 9821).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5484); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9821); max. published weight: 906.00 g (Ref. 4887)
Adults inhabit inshore coral and rocky reefs and in clear waters of lagoons (Ref. 9821). Pelagic and benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Occur singly or in small groups. Feed mainly on fishes, but also eat crustaceans. Individuals with brilliant yellow on head may be nuptial males (Ref. 9821). Often curious and approachable (Ref. 9710). Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Anderson, W.D. Jr. and G.R. Allen, 2001. Lutjanidae. Jobfishes. p. 2840-2918. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9821)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30298)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28 °C (based on 1996 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00984 - 0.02932), b=2.95 (2.81 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.73 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax = 9).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 32.9 [17.5, 61.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.585 [0.363, 0.938] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.4, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.152 [0.101, 0.229] g/100g ; Selenium = 45.8 [26.3, 75.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 81 [31, 233] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.837 [0.540, 1.200] mg/100g (wet weight);