Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic. Tropical
Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand (Chao Phraya, Mekong and Tapi Rivers).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 7050)
Narrow white marginal band around disk; white spot anterior to spiracle and posterior to eye; ventral surface plain; spiral valve with 11-14 turns (Ref. 12693).
Inhabits sandy bottoms in estuaries and rivers (Ref. 12693). Feeds on bottom-dwelling crustaceans and shellfish. Breeds in fresh water (Ref. 32457). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Wounds caused by the dorsal spines are extremely painful and can be fatal. Sold fresh for human consumption (Ref. 32457). Total length maybe greater than 200 cm.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo, 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. (Ref. 7050)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00366 - 0.01891), b=3.11 (2.90 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Assuming Fec<10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) .