Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish.
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 30 m (Ref. 121773). Tropical; 7°N - 13°S, 10°W - 14°E (Ref. 55)
Eastern Atlantic: Ghana to the Congo River mouth (Ref. 55, 57393, 81653). Reported from the Fatala in Guinea (Ref. 28587) but this needs confirmation.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 85.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 81653)
(total): 10 - 11;
soft rays: 8. Diagnosis: head pointed, dorsal profile of forehead somewhat angular (Ref. 55, 57393). Body moderately deep; snout acute; profile of head straight or slightly concave (Ref. 81653). Preorbital/lachrymal bone broad (Ref. 55, 81653). Vomerine tooth patch triangular (occasionally) with a short postero-median extension (Ref. 57393, 81653). Maxilla extending to or beyond level of front part of eye (Ref. 55, 57393, 81653). Preopercular notch and knob weak (Ref. 55, 81653). Pectoral fins long, usually reaching level of anus (Ref. 81653). Scales medium-sized and ctenoid; 8-10 transverse scale rows on cheek (Ref. 57393, 81653). Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line; 6 scale rows above lateral line and below middle of spiny part of dorsal fin (Ref. 55, 57393, 81653). Back and upper sides brown to dark brown shading to silvery white on belly; fins mainly dark brown (Ref. 55, 57393, 81653), especially the pelvics (Ref. 57393). Scales below lateral line frequently with pale centres forming longitudinal stripes (Ref. 81653). Juveniles frequently with 6 to 8 vertical rows of white spots on sides and a pair of blue lines on cheek below eye, specimens below 15 cm often with dusky patch on caudal peduncle (Ref. 55, 57393, 81653), which is an anterior- and posteriorly white-edged greyish spot on dorsal part of caudal peduncle, just behind last dorsal-fin ray (Ref. 57393).
Adults occur on rocky bottoms and (near shore) coral reefs, as well as in brackish lagoons and sometimes in lower courses of rivers (Ref. 2683, 57393, 81653). Maximum reported size only 200mm TL in Ref. 57393.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00712 - 0.03073), b=2.98 (2.82 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .