Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sparidae
Etymology: Diplodus: Greek, diploos = twice + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Issue on validity of subspecies: subspecies considered as valid in FB, elevated to species rank as Diplodus hottentotus (Smith, 1844) in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Mar. 2011: Ref. 86697). Please send references, or more studies are needed.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range - 100 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Western Indian Ocean: known only from southern Mozambique and South Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 28.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3507); max. reported age: 33 years (Ref. 26244)
Inhabits coastal waters, mainly on rocky bottoms. Also enters estuaries, which are also used as nursery grounds. Feeds on fish, mollusks, crustaceans, worms, and other organisms. Has a nauseating odor; sold fresh in markets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and E. Heemstra, 2004. Coastal fishes of Southern Africa. National Inquiry Service Centre (NISC) and South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity (SAIAB), Grahamstown. 488 p. (Ref. 58304)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00806 - 0.02257), b=3.04 (2.90 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=6; tmax=33).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .