Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Pomacanthidae
Etymology: Pomacanthus: Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 4 - 50 m (Ref. 30573). Tropical; 30°N - 33°S, 24°E - 65°E
Western Indian Ocean: from the Persian Gulf to the coast of Mozambique, East Africa; the Mediterranean Sea, western (Brazil and Florida) and eastern Atlantic Ocean (Canary Is.) and central Pacific. First record from the Eastern Pacific,
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 21.6  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
More often in silty reef areas than in rich coral growth (Ref. 30573). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 9710.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.8 - 29.3, mean 27.2 °C (based on 238 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03162 (0.01873 - 0.05338), b=2.89 (2.75 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 13.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Very high vulnerability (85 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 29.2 [17.2, 47.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.465 [0.299, 0.752] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [17.5, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.108 [0.069, 0.165] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.8 [17.2, 59.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 53 [15, 180] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.09 [0.72, 1.63] mg/100g (wet weight);