Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Mullus: Latin, mullus = soft (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Mullus barbatus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758 and Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927 (restricted to Black and Azov Seas) are constantly recognized as subspecies rank, including in Eschmeyer's CofF (ver. Nov. 2020). Related information is found under the "Stocks" link in the species summary page / More info.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 328 m (Ref. 56504), usually 100 - 300 m (Ref. 35388). Subtropical; 58°N - 14°N, 32°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: British Isles (occasionally Scandinavia) to Dakar, Senegal, Canary Islands, Mediterranean, Black Sea (Ref. . Also known from the Azores (Ref. 4845).
Two subspecies are recognized: Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927 in the Black Sea, and Mullus barbatus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758 in the rest of the distribution area. If they are 2 different clades, the presence of the later in the southeastern Black Sea remains to be clearly evidenced. Please send PDFs or more studies are needed.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 38.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 88921); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4845); max. published weight: 680.00 g (Ref. 88921)
Found on gravel, sand and mud bottoms of the continental shelf. Depth range from 10-300 m (Ref. 07313) and up to depth of 328 in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feeds on small benthic crustaceans, worms and mollusks (Ref. 4845). Marketed mainly fresh (Ref. 9987).
Ben-Tuvia, A., 1990. Mullidae. p. 827-829. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7313)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.1 - 15.9, mean 14.2 °C (based on 119 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00789 - 0.00961), b=3.09 (3.06 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.6 (2.7 - 4.3) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 62 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.11-0.5; tmax=11).
Prior r = 0.68, 95% CL = 0.42 - 1.04, Based on 13 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 95.2 [36.7, 180.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.602 [0.223, 2.011] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.7, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.784 [0.512, 1.197] g/100g ; Selenium = 21.7 [9.4, 49.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.9 [4.5, 43.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.284 [0.171, 0.702] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.