Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 265 - 500 m (Ref. 58302). Deep-water
Eastern Central Pacific: Hawaii.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 68.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 28618)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Tinker, S.W., 1978. Fishes of Hawaii, a handbook of the marine fishes of Hawaii and the Central Pacific Ocean. Hawaiian Service Inc., Honolulu. 568 p. (Ref. 583)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.7 - 11.2, mean 4.1 (based on 14 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5315 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00195 (0.00073 - 0.00522), b=3.13 (2.90 - 3.36), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .