Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Forster.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 50 - ? m (Ref. 89707). Tropical; 30°N - 12°S, 144°E - 139°W (Ref. 5222)
Pacific Ocean: known only from the Marquesan Islands and one specimen from Minami Tori Shima, Marcus Islands, Japan (although this report may be erroneous).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 34.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89707); max. published weight: 770.00 g (Ref. 4787)
soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: reddish brown color with white dot on each scale giving finely speckled appearance; dark reddish brown maxillary streak; prominent dark red margin on spinous dorsal fin; rear edges of median and pectoral fins with white line; body depth contained 2.7-3.3 times in SL; head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL; slightly convex interorbital area and dorsal head profile; rounded and slightly indented preopercle angle, lower serrae scarcely enlarged; upper edge of operculum almost straight; posterior nostrils about twice the size of anterior nostrils; maxilla reaching or just past vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-4 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).
Abundant in shallow water around fringing reefs. Nothing has been published on its biology.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00578 - 0.02386), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 37.1 [19.5, 82.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.542 [0.300, 1.085] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [17.0, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.132 [0.087, 0.208] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.2 [19.2, 56.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 231 [67, 803] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.48 [0.94, 2.21] mg/100g (wet weight);