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Epinephelus retouti Bleeker, 1868

Red-tipped grouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2050
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Epinephelus retouti   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus retouti (Red-tipped grouper)
Epinephelus retouti
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) > Epinephelidae (Groupers)
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bleeker.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 220 m (Ref. 5222). Tropical; 36°N - 27°S, 37°E - 143°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: islands in tropical and subtropical waters from the western Indian Ocean to Jarvis Island (Line Islands, Kiribati) and French Polynesia (Ref. 4787), including Bassas da India (Mozambique Channel) (Ref. 5222).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 5222)

Short description Identification keys | Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16 - 17; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Similar to E. fasciatus, differing primarily by having straighter head profile and longer snout, red rather than black tips on spinous dorsal fin (Ref. 37816). Distinguished by the following characteristics: adults dull yellowish orange to brownish red, each scale on the dorsolateral part of the body with dark greenish grey spot; usually 5 faint dark bares on body, 2nd and 3rd bars extend onto the spinous dorsal fin where they are dark brown; dorsal fin greenish brown, soft rayed part darker than rest of the fin, outer triangular part of interspinous membranes dark red, set off from the rest of the fin by an orange-yellow stripe; dark greenish brown dorsal fin margin of caudal fin; dark red or brown line along base of dorsal fin; narrowly edged orbit, except anteriorly, with dark red; pale blue line adjacent to the red rim of the orbit and completely surrounding eye; body depth contained 2.5-3.1 times in SL; head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL; flat to slightly convex interorbital, dorsal head profile slightly convex; rounded preopercle, finely serrate; sinuous upper edge of operculum; snout length 3.5-3.9 times in HL; subequal anterior and posterior nostrils; maxilla reaches below rear half of eye; 3-4 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; pair of short fixed canines at front of both jaws; numerous pyloric caeca (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults are found in depths of 70 to 220 m on outer reef slopes; the young in depths of 20 to 40 m (Ref. 89707). Also caught with vertical longlines.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturities | Reproduction | Spawnings | Egg(s) | Fecundities | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 02 November 2017


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

More information

Trophic ecology
Food items
Diet compositions
Food consumptions
Food rations
Population dynamics
Max. ages / sizes
Length-weight rel.
Length-length rel.
Mass conversions
Life cycle
Spawning aggregations
Egg developments
Larval dynamics
FAO areas
BRUVS - Videos
Gill areas
Body compositions
Oxygen consumptions
Swimming type
Swimming speeds
Visual pigment(s)
Fish sounds
Diseases / Parasites
Toxicities (LC50s)
Human related
Aquaculture systems
Aquaculture profiles
Ciguatera cases
Stamps, coins, misc.


Special reports

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: genus, species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 20.8 - 28.1, mean 26.1 °C (based on 472 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00571 - 0.02419), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.65 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 26.1 [12.5, 54.2] mg/100g; Iron = 0.474 [0.256, 0.953] mg/100g; Protein = 18.5 [16.9, 19.9] %; Omega3 = 0.142 [0.090, 0.227] g/100g; Selenium = 44.3 [26.0, 76.1] μg/100g; VitaminA = 188 [55, 660] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.21 [0.85, 1.69] mg/100g (wet weight);