Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Randall & Heemstra.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 155 m (Ref. 89707), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 33°N - 8°N, 44°E - 77°E (Ref. 5222)
Western Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Pakistan, and west coast of India. Since it has only recently been discovered, it may be expected to have a wider distribution.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); 54.7 cm TL (female); max. published weight: g
soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: head, body and fins pale, covered with numerous small close-set dark brown spots; spots on fins and dorsal parts of head and body smaller and closer together compared to those on the sides and ventrally; rear edge of caudal fin with white line and a row of blackish brown spots; presence of dark maxillary streak; body depth contained 2.6-3.3 times in SL; body width 1.8-2.4 times in depth; head length 2.5-2.8 times in SL; slightly convex interorbital, dorsal head profile almost straight; angular preopercle, with indentation above the angle and enlarged serrae below the indentation; straight upper edge of operculum; posterior nostrils slightly larger than anterior ones; maxilla reaches to below rear half of eye; front of jaws with a pair of small fixed canines; 2 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw, inner ones twice length of outer teeth, pyloric caeca 28-34 (Ref. 89707).
Known from rocky areas adjacent to soft bottoms in depths 10-155 m (Ref. 89707). In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.9 - 27.1, mean 24.5 °C (based on 133 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00612 - 0.01712), b=3.03 (2.89 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 5.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.19; tmax=41).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 67.7 [32.9, 171.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.65 [0.32, 1.47] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.3, 19.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.213 [0.116, 0.397] g/100g ; Selenium = 72.3 [34.8, 145.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 50.2 [12.3, 208.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.14 [0.67, 1.94] mg/100g (wet weight);