Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: starnesi: Named for ichthyologist Wayne C. Starnes, Curator of Fishes and Director of the Research Lab at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Subtropical
North America: USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 5 - 6 cm
Max length : 7.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 93269)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 12 - 14;
soft rays: 7 - 9. This species belonging to the N. maculatus species group have scales associated with the postorbital spot on the cheek and show breeding behavior in which males guard clumps of eggs in crevices under rocks (vs. having a completely unscaled cheek and burying clumps of eggs in substrate with no subsequent care in all other species of Nothonotus<>). Within the species group, N. starnesi and N. sanguifluus differs from all other species on the basis of pigmentation patterns, males have red pigmentation covering a high proportion of all the median fins (vs. green median fins in N. wapiti and N. microlepidus; greenish blue anal and pelvic fins in N. vulneratus and N. maculatus); and, the presence of a suborbital bar (vs. absent in Nothonotus aquali). Male nuptial coloration of N. starnesi tends to have less-pronounced darkening of pigment at the base of the first three interradial membranes of the spinous dorsal fin and in the pelvic fins, has much more discrete and contrasting vermiculation on the head and cheek, and has more red in the pectoral fins when compared with N. sanguifluus. In addition, N. starnesi have lower mean numbers for pored lateral line scales, scales below the lateral line, and scales in the most ventral row of the opercle (Ref. 93269).
This species is found to be most abundant in the faster-flowing riffles of medium to large streams; substrate in these riffles is mostly large cobble and small boulders that is not embedded. Adults and juveniles are found in the same riffles, but smaller individuals tend to be more common near the banks of the streams. N. starnesi is expected to spawn in a manner similar to other members of the N. maculatus species group, with the males guarding a nest site under a larger cobble in fast current and eggs deposited in a clump in the crevice under the cobble. During the dryer, summer months, the surface flow of several eastern Caney Fork tributaries flowing over the more karst-like areas completely disappears, creating a series of isolated pools with little or no observable current. During these times, the species have only been observed in patches of silt-free substrate along the margins of the pool, presumably indicating areas of subsurface water upwelling. Gravid females are observed from May through July (Ref. 93269).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Keck, B.P. and T.J. Near, 2013. A new species of Nothonotus Darter (Teleostei: Percidae) from the Caney Fork in Tennessee, USA. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 54(1):3-21. (Ref. 93269)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .