Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes
(Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Hexagrammidae
(Greenlings) > Hexagramminae
Etymology: Hexagrammos: Greek, exa = six + greek, gramma = letter,signal (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Jordan & Starks.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 139 - 155 m (Ref. 27311). Temperate; 50°N - 26°N, 120°E - 152°E
Northwest Pacific: Japan, the southern Korean Peninsula to the Yellow Sea (Ref. 5590; including the coast of Primorye (Ref. 114081).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 57.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 2.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
Occurs in rocky coastal areas; often gather around artificial reefs. Breeds from October to December. The egg masses are attached to small rocks, guarded by the male (Ref. 559 and 637). Commercially cultured in Japan.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male guards eggs.
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 2.1 - 14, mean 5.7 °C (based on 7 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5159 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00202 - 0.01133), b=3.12 (2.91 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .