Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Variola: Latin, variolus = pustule, pock (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 4 - 200 m (Ref. 5222), usually 12 - 90 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 29°N - 26°S, 38°E - 17°W (Ref. 5222)
Indo-Pacific: east coast of Africa (Zanzibar and Mafia Island, Tanzania) to Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland, Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 67 - ? cm
Max length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
A generally uncommon species that inhabits seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles inshore on algae and soft coral reefs, usually swimming well above the substrate, looking much like a basslet (Ref. 48635). Found in small groups (Ref. 11888). Feeds on fishes. Flesh tastes excellent. Solitary (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.9 - 28.9, mean 27.7 (based on 1802 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00855 - 0.02128), b=3.07 (2.94 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .