Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Peters.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 15 - 30 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 35°N - 8°N, 105°E - 128°E (Ref. 5222)
Western Pacific: southern Japan to Taiwan, China including Hainan, Hong Kong, Viet Nam, Philippines, and Sarawak, Malaysia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137)
soft rays: 7 - 8. Distinguished by having grey brown color shading to whitish, yellowish or pink ventrally; head and body with numerous small yellowish brown, orange brown or brown spots; in juveniles and subadult, five slightly oblique brown bars on body that bifurcate ventrally; ctenoid body scales except cycloid anterodorsally above lateral line and on thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.3 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.9-2.3 in head length (Ref. 90102); further characterized by having a slightly convex interorbital area and dorsal head profile; angular preopercle, serrae at the angle slightly enlarged; straight upper edge of operculum; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils; maxilla reaching about below rear third of eye or a little past eye; 2-3 rows of subequal teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).
Inhabits shallow rocky areas and feeds on small fishes, prawns, crabs, worms, and gastropods (Ref. 89707). An excellent food fish and brings a good price. Solitary, found in rocky bottoms in 15-30 m (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.9 - 28.4, mean 27.1 °C (based on 52 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00555 - 0.02374), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.58 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 39.5 [20.8, 88.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.586 [0.320, 1.155] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.9, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.128 [0.085, 0.203] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.5 [19.1, 55.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 211 [62, 735] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.59 [0.99, 2.38] mg/100g (wet weight);